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|Enterprise JavaBeans||Richard Monson-Haefel|
|Essentials of the Java Programming Language - Part 1||Monica Pawlan|
|Essentials of the Java Programming Language - Part 2||Monica Pawlan|
|Exploring Java||Patrick Niemeyer & Joshua Peck|
|Introduction to Computer Science using Java||Bradley Kjell|
|Introduction to Programming Using Java||David J. Eck|
|Java AWT Reference||John Zukowski|
|Java Language Reference||Mark Grand|
|Java Servlet Programming||Jason Hunter, William Crawford|
|Java Web Services Tutorial||Eric Armstrong, Stephanie Bodoff, Debbie Carson, Maydene Fisher, Dale Green, Kim Haase|
|Thinking in Java||Bruce Eckel|
|Java is an
object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in
the early 1990s. Java applications are often compiled to bytecode,
which may be compiled to native machine code at runtime.
Sun Microsystems provides a GNU General Public License implementation of a Java compiler and Java virtual machine, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, although the class library that is required to run Java programs is not free software.
Java was started as a project called "Oak" by James Gosling in June 1991. Gosling's goals were to implement a virtual machine and a language that had a familiar C/++ style of notation. The first public implementation was Java 1.0 in 1995. It promised "Write Once, Run Anywhere" (WORA), providing no-cost runtimes on popular platforms. It was fairly secure and its security was configurable, allowing network and file access to be restricted. Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run secure Java "applets" within web pages. Java became popular quickly. With the advent of "Java 2", new versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platform. For example, J2EE was for enterprise applications and the greatly stripped down version J2ME was for mobile applications.
In 1997, Sun approached the ISO/IEC JTC1 standards body and later the Ecma International to formalize Java, but it soon withdrew from the process. Java remains a proprietary de facto standard that is controlled through the Java Community Process . Sun makes most of its Java implementations available without charge, with revenue being generated by specialized products such as the Java Enterprise System. Sun distinguishes between its Software Development Kit (SDK) and Runtime Environment (JRE) which is a subset of the SDK, the primary distinction being that in the JRE the compiler is not present.
On November 13, 2006, Sun released parts of Java as Free/Open Source Software, under the GNU General Public License. The release of the complete sources under GPL is expected in the first quarter of 2007.